i think, the layers of reproduction went somewhat like this:

a sujet optical process (lenses and camera) chemical process (exposure on film)
2.nd chemical process (c41)

a 6 x 6 negative
2.nd optical process (projector and lenses)
3.rd chemical process (exposure on photo paper)

a photographic print
3.rd optical process (contact scan) digital process (e.g. importing, caching, preparation for print) chemical process (printing)

a colour copy optical process (contact scan) 2.nd digital process (e.g. importing, caching, saving, copying)

a tif file
3.rd digital process (e.g. caching, cropping, seizing, saving ...)

a jpg file digital process (e.g. file requesting, loading, displaying)

you may want to read 'manipulation' instead of process